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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

404        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

inductively without unnecessary regard to tradition; (6) that
activities of some kind should have a fundamental place in the
school regime. As an example, may be mentioned the Lincoln
School of Teachers' College, Columbia University, founded by a
millionaire to secure an ideal education for his own children, in
accordance with the ideas of Dr. Charles W. Eliot, President
Emeritus of Harvard University. " The Lincoln School is not
the realization of some received or imaginatively developed
system of pedagogy. It is a concrete inquiry. Thus in the teach-
ing of modern languages it does not accept the direct method as
the best possible mode of instruction: * experiments/ says the
prospectus, * will be made with such languages as English, French
and German to determine what methods give the most substantial
and effective results in the use of the langauges.* It combines
certain subjects in certain proportions; it does not present the
mixture as a sovereign specific, but is prepared to reconsider the
ingredients. Offering neither Latin nor Greek, it bases its work
on Realien and on real situations. Why ? Because it * hopes to
discover whether an education based on realities is not only
consistent with high intellectual, social and spiritual ideals, but
also the most effective way of organizing the pupil's capacities
and interests/ "*

Another practical outcome of Dewey's educational philosophy
is the Project Method employed by his disciples in many American
schools. The method translates the idea of education through
occupations into a form suitable for the ordinary school. Instead
of learning lessons under the direction of the teacher, the pupils
are faced with some task to be accomplished, some problem to
be solved; and if the project thus presented is one suited to the
age and experience of the cliildren, the interest it creates carries
them beyond the immediate activity into a varied learning* School
gardening as practised in many rural districts in Britain illustrates
the method. The children are given responsibility for the
cultivation of a piece of ground. They have to plan ahead, find
out about different crops, divide up the plots, think about times
and seasons, study soils and seeds, so that before the year is
done they have acquired considerable knowledge and skill.
This is one kind of project, and there are others. Professor
W. H. Kilpatrick, Dewey's colleague, distinguishes four types;
* The Times Educational Supplement, August 8,